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Baliutyte, G., Baniene, R., Gendviliene, V., Martisiene, I., Trumbeckaite, S., Borutaite, V., and Toleikis, A. Influence of ethanol extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves on the isolated rat heart work and mitochondria functions. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2012;59(5):450-457. View abstract.

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Bredie, S. J. and Jong, M. C. No significant effect of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in the treatment of primary Raynaud phenomenon: a randomized controlled trial. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2012;59(3):215-221. View abstract.

Brinkley, T. E., Lovato, J. F., Arnold, A. M., Furberg, C. D., Kuller, L. H., Burke, G. L., Nahin, R. L., Lopez, O. L., Yasar, S., and Williamson, J. D. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on blood pressure and incidence of hypertension in elderly men and women. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23(5):528-533. View abstract.

Brochet, B., Guinot, P., Orgogozo, J. M., Confavreux, C., Rumbach, L., and Lavergne, V. Double blind placebo controlled multicentre study of ginkgolide B in treatment of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis. The Ginkgolide Study Group in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1995;58(3):360-362. View abstract.

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Canter, P. H. and Ernst, E. Ginkgo biloba is not a smart drug: an updated systematic review of randomised clinical trials testing the nootropic effects of G. biloba extracts in healthy people. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2007;22(5):265-278. View abstract.

Choi, W. S., Choi, C. J., Kim, K. S., Lee, J. H., Song, C. H., Chung, J. H., Ock, S. M., Lee, J. B., and Kim, C. M. To compare the efficacy and safety of nifedipine sustained release with Ginkgo biloba extract to treat patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon in South Korea; Korean Raynaud study (KOARA study). Clin Rheumatol. 2009;28(5):553-559. View abstract.

Cockle, S. M., Kimber, S., and Hindmarch, I. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (LI 1370) supplementation on activities of daily living in free living older volunteers: a questionnaire survey. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2000;15(4):227-235. View abstract.

D'Andrea, G., Bussone, G., Allais, G., Aguggia, M., D'Onofrio, F., Maggio, M., Moschiano, F., Saracco, M. G., Terzi, M. G., Petretta, V., and Benedetto, C. Efficacy of Ginkgolide B in the prophylaxis of migraine with aura. Neurol.Sci 2009;30 Suppl 1:S121-S124. View abstract.

Dardano, A., Ballardin, M., Caraccio, N., Boni, G., Traino, C., Mariani, G., Ferdeghini, M., Barale, R., and Monzani, F. The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on genotoxic damage in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma receiving thyroid remnant ablation with iodine-131. Thyroid 2012;22(3):318-324. View abstract.

Deng, F. and Zito, S. W. Development and validation of a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for simultaneous identification and quantification of marker compounds including bilobalide, ginkgolides and flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba L. extract and pharmaceutical preparations. J Chromatogr.A 1-31-2003;986(1):121-127. View abstract.

Deng, Y. K., Wei, F., and An, B. Q. [Effect of ginkgo biloba extract on plasma vascular endothelial growth factor during peri-operative period of cardiac surgery]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2009;29(1):40-42. View abstract.

Donfrancesco, R. and Ferrante, L. Ginkgo biloba in dyslexia: a pilot study. Phytomedicine 2007;14(6):367-370. View abstract.

Engelsen, J., Nielsen, J. D., and Hansen, K. F. [Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Ginkgo biloba on warfarin dosage in patients on long-term warfarin treatment. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial]. Ugeskr.Laeger 4-28-2003;165(18):1868-1871. View abstract.

Esposito, M. and Carotenuto, M. Ginkgolide B complex efficacy for brief prophylaxis of migraine in school-aged children: an open-label study. Neurol.Sci 9-25-2010; View abstract.

Fan, L., Tao, G. Y., Wang, G., Chen, Y., Zhang, W., He, Y. J., Li, Q., Lei, H. P., Jiang, F., Hu, D. L., Huang, Y. F., and Zhou, H. H. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract ingestion on the pharmacokinetics of talinolol in healthy Chinese volunteers. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43(5):944-949. View abstract.

Fessenden JM, Wittenborn W, and Clarke L. Ginkgo biloba: a case report of herbal medicine and bleeding postoperatively from a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg 2001;67(1):33-35.

Guillon, J. M., Rochette, L., and Baranes, J. [Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on 2 models of experimental myocardial ischemia]. Presse Med 9-25-1986;15(31):1516-1519. View abstract.

Han, S. S., Nam, E. C., Won, J. Y., Lee, K. U., Chun, W., Choi, H. K., and Levine, R. A. Clonazepam quiets tinnitus: a randomised crossover study with Ginkgo biloba. J Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiatry 2012;83(8):821-827. View abstract.

Hao, Y., Sun, Y., Xu, C., Jiang, X., Sun, H., Wu, Q., Yan, C., and Gu, S. Improvement of contractile function in isolated cardiomyocytes from ischemia-reperfusion rats by ginkgolide B pretreatment. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2009;54(1):3-9. View abstract.

Hauns, B., Haring, B., Kohler, S., Mross, K., Robben-Bathe, P., and Unger, C. Phase II study with 5-fluorouracil and ginkgo biloba extract (GBE 761 ONC) in patients with pancreatic cancer. Arzneimittelforschung 1999;49(12):1030-1034. View abstract.

He, M., Zhang, X. M., and Yuan, H. Q. [Clinical study on treatment of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with ginkgo extract]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2005;25(3):222-224. View abstract.

Herrschaft, H., Nacu, A., Likhachev, S., Sholomov, I., Hoerr, R., and Schlaefke, S. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R) in dementia with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of a daily dose of 240 mg. J Psychiatr.Res 2012;46(6):716-723. View abstract.

Ito, T. Y., Trant, A. S., and Polan, M. L. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for enhancement of female sexual function. J Sex Marital Ther 2001;27(5):541-549. View abstract.

Janssen, I. M., Sturtz, S., Skipka, G., Zentner, A., Velasco, Garrido M., and Busse, R. Ginkgo biloba in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 2010;160(21-22):539-546. View abstract.

Janssens, D., Michiels, C., Delaive, E., Eliaers, F., Drieu, K., and Remacle, J. Protection of hypoxia-induced ATP decrease in endothelial cells by ginkgo biloba extract and bilobalide. Biochem Pharmacol 9-28-1995;50(7):991-999. View abstract.

Jiang, W., Qiu, W., Wang, Y., Cong, Q., Edwards, D., Ye, B., and Xu, C. Ginkgo may prevent genetic-associated ovarian cancer risk: multiple biomarkers and anticancer pathways induced by ginkgolide B in BRCA1-mutant ovarian epithelial cells. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011;20(6):508-517. View abstract.

Kampman, K., Majewska, M. D., Tourian, K., Dackis, C., Cornish, J., Poole, S., and O'Brien, C. A pilot trial of piracetam and ginkgo biloba for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Addict.Behav 2003;28(3):437-448. View abstract.

Kaschel, R. Ginkgo biloba: specificity of neuropsychological improvement--a selective review in search of differential effects. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2009;24(5):345-370. View abstract.

Kaschel, R. Specific memory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in middle-aged healthy volunteers. Phytomedicine 11-15-2011;18(14):1202-1207. View abstract.

Kennedy, D. O., Haskell, C. F., Mauri, P. L., and Scholey, A. B. Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2007;22(4):199-210. View abstract.

Kim, T. E., Kim, B. H., Kim, J., Kim, K. P., Yi, S., Shin, H. S., Lee, Y. O., Lee, K. H., Shin, S. G., Jang, I. J., and Yu, K. S. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of ticlopidine between administration of a combined fixed-dose tablet formulation of ticlopidine 250 mg/ginkgo extract 80 mg, and concomitant administration of ticlopidine 250-mg and ginkgo extract 80-mg tablets: an open-label, two-treatment, single-dose, randomized-sequence crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers. Clin Ther 2009;31(10):2249-2257. View abstract.

Koltai, M., Tosaki, A., Hosford, D., and Braquet, P. Ginkgolide B protects isolated hearts against arrhythmias induced by ischemia but not reperfusion. Eur J Pharmacol 5-19-1989;164(2):293-302. View abstract.

Kose, K. and Dogan, P. Lipoperoxidation induced by hydrogen peroxide in human erythrocyte membranes. 1. Protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761). J Int Med Res 1995;23(1):1-8. View abstract.

Laws, K. R., Sweetnam, H., and Kondel, T. K. Is Ginkgo biloba a cognitive enhancer in healthy individuals? A meta-analysis. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2012;27(6):527-533. View abstract.

Leadbetter, G., Keyes, L. E., Maakestad, K. M., Olson, S., Tissot van Patot, M. C., and Hackett, P. H. Ginkgo biloba does--and does not--prevent acute mountain sickness. Wilderness.Environ.Med 2009;20(1):66-71. View abstract.

Lee, J., Sohn, S. W., and Kee, C. Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract on Visual Field Progression in Normal Tension Glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 5-16-2012; View abstract.

Lei, H. P., Wang, G., Wang, L. S., Ou-yang, D. S., Chen, H., Li, Q., Zhang, W., Tan, Z. R., Fan, L., He, Y. J., and Zhou, H. H. Lack of effect of Ginkgo biloba on voriconazole pharmacokinetics in Chinese volunteers identified as CYP2C19 poor and extensive metabolizers. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43(4):726-731. View abstract.

Lin, Y. Y., Chu, S. J., and Tsai, S. H. Association between priapism and concurrent use of risperidone and Ginkgo biloba. Mayo Clin Proc 2007;82(10):1289-1290. View abstract.

Lovera, J. F., Kim, E., Heriza, E., Fitzpatrick, M., Hunziker, J., Turner, A. P., Adams, J., Stover, T., Sangeorzan, A., Sloan, A., Howieson, D., Wild, K., Haselkorn, J., and Bourdette, D. Ginkgo biloba does not improve cognitive function in MS: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 9-18-2012;79(12):1278-1284. View abstract.

Lovera, J., Bagert, B., Smoot, K., Morris, C. D., Frank, R., Bogardus, K., Wild, K., Oken, B., Whitham, R., and Bourdette, D. Ginkgo biloba for the improvement of cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Mult.Scler. 2007;13(3):376-385. View abstract.

May, B. H., Yang, A. W., Zhang, A. L., Owens, M. D., Bennett, L., Head, R., Cobiac, L., Li, C. G., Hugel, H., Story, D. F., and Xue, C. C. Chinese herbal medicine for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Age Associated Memory Impairment: a review of randomised controlled trials. Biogerontology. 2009;10(2):109-123. View abstract.

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Jiang X, Blair EY, McLachlan AJ. Investigation of the effects of herbal medicines on warfarin response in healthy subjects: a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling approach. J Clin Pharmacol 2006;46:1370-8. View abstract.

Jiang X, Williams KM, Liauw WS, et al. Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005;59:425-32. View abstract.

Kajiyama Y, Fujii K, Takeuchi H, Manabe Y. Ginkgo seed poisoning. Pediatrics 2002;109:325-7. View abstract.

Kang BJ, Lee SJ, Kim MD, Cho MJ. A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17:279-84. View abstract.

Kanowski S, Herrmann WM, Stephan K, et al. Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract (EGb 761) in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia. Pharmacopsychiatry 1996;29:47-56. View abstract.

Kellermann AJ, Kloft C. Is there a risk of bleeding associated with standardized ginkgo biloba extract therapy? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmacotherapy 2011;31:490-502. View abstract.

Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. The dose-dependent cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000;151:416-23. View abstract.

Kim BH, Kim KP, Lim KS, et al. Influence of Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic properties of ticlopidine: An open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, single-dose crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers. Clin Ther 2010;32:380-90. View abstract.

Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. Ginkgo biloba for cerebral insufficiency. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1992;34:352-8. View abstract.

Kohler S, Funk P, Kieser M. Influence of a 7-day treatment with Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on bleeding time and coagulation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in healthy volunteers. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2004;15:303–9. View abstract.

Kressmann S, Muller WE, Blume HH. Pharmaceutical quality of different Ginkgo biloba brands. J Pharm Pharmacol 2002;54:661-9. View abstract.

Kudolo G. Ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract significantly inhibits collagen-induced platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 synthesis. Alt Ther 2001;7:105.

Kudolo GB, Delaney D, Blodgett J. Short-term oral ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) reduces malondialdehyde levels in washed platelets of type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2005;68:29-38. View abstract.

Kudolo GB, Dorsey S, Blodgett J. Effect of the ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract on platelet aggregation and urinary prostanoid excretion in healthy and Type 2 diabetic subjects. Thromb Res 2002;108:151-60.. View abstract.

Kudolo GB, Wang W, Elrod R, et al. Short-term ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract does not alter whole body insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic, pre-diabetic or type 2 diabetic subjects--a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Clin Nutr 2006;25:123-34. View abstract.

Kudolo GB, Wang W, Javors M, Blodgett J. The effect of the ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the pharmacokinetics of metformin in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects-A double blind placebo-controlled, crossover study. Clin Nutr 2006;25:606-16. View abstract.

Kudolo GB. The effect of 3-month ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract on pancreatic beta-cell function in response to glucose loading in normal glucose tolerant individuals. J Clin Pharmacol 2000;40:647-54. View abstract.

Kudolo GB. The effect of 3-month ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on pancreatic beta-cell function in response to glucose loading in individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Pharmacol 2001;41:600-11. View abstract.

Kuller LH, Ives DG, Fitzpatrick AL, et al. Does Ginkgo biloba reduce the risk of cardiovascular events? Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2010;3:41-7. View abstract.

Kupiec T, Raj V. Fatal seizures due to potential herb-drug interactions with Ginkgo biloba. J Anal Toxicol 2005:755-8. View abstract.

Kurz A, Van Baelen B. Ginkgo biloba compared with cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of dementia: a review based on meta-analyses by the Cochrane collaboration. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004;18:217-26. View abstract.

Lai SW, Chen JH, Kao WY. Acute hemolytic anemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency complicated by Ginkgo biloba. Acta Haematol 2013;130(4):288-90. View abstract.

Lanthony P, Cosson JP. [The course of color vision in early diabetic retinopathy treated with ginkgo biloba extract. A preliminary, double-blind versus placebo study]. J Fr Ophtalmol 1988;11:671-4. View abstract.

Le Bars PL, Katz MM, Berman N, et al. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group. JAMA 1997;278:1327-32. View abstract.

Le Bars PL, Kieser M, Itil KZ. A 26-week analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2000;11:230-7. View abstract.

Lebuisson DA, Leroy L, Rigal G. [Treatment of senile macular degeneration with Ginkgo biloba extract. A preliminary double-blind drug vs. placebo study]. (Abstract). Presse Med 1986;15:1556-8. View abstract.

Levine SB. Caution recommended. J Sex Marital Ther 1999;25:2-5. View abstract.

Li AL, Shi YD, Landsmann B, et al. Hemorheology and walking of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases patients during treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract. Chung Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao 1998;19:417-21. View abstract.

Li W, Fitzloff JF, Farnsworth NR, Fong HH. Evaluation of commercial Ginkgo biloba dietary supplements for the presence of colchicine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Phytomedicine 2002;9:442-6. View abstract.


Source: http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-333-GINKGO.aspx?activeIngredientId=333&activeIngredientName=GINKGO


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