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Bal Dit, Sollier C., Caplain, H., and Drouet, L. No alteration in platelet function or coagulation induced by EGb761 in a controlled study. Clin Lab Haematol. 2003;25(4):251-253. View abstract.

Baliutyte, G., Baniene, R., Gendviliene, V., Martisiene, I., Trumbeckaite, S., Borutaite, V., and Toleikis, A. Influence of ethanol extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves on the isolated rat heart work and mitochondria functions. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2012;59(5):450-457. View abstract.

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Bredie, S. J. and Jong, M. C. No significant effect of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in the treatment of primary Raynaud phenomenon: a randomized controlled trial. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2012;59(3):215-221. View abstract.

Brinkley, T. E., Lovato, J. F., Arnold, A. M., Furberg, C. D., Kuller, L. H., Burke, G. L., Nahin, R. L., Lopez, O. L., Yasar, S., and Williamson, J. D. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on blood pressure and incidence of hypertension in elderly men and women. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23(5):528-533. View abstract.

Brochet, B., Guinot, P., Orgogozo, J. M., Confavreux, C., Rumbach, L., and Lavergne, V. Double blind placebo controlled multicentre study of ginkgolide B in treatment of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis. The Ginkgolide Study Group in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1995;58(3):360-362. View abstract.

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Canter, P. H. and Ernst, E. Ginkgo biloba is not a smart drug: an updated systematic review of randomised clinical trials testing the nootropic effects of G. biloba extracts in healthy people. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2007;22(5):265-278. View abstract.

Choi, W. S., Choi, C. J., Kim, K. S., Lee, J. H., Song, C. H., Chung, J. H., Ock, S. M., Lee, J. B., and Kim, C. M. To compare the efficacy and safety of nifedipine sustained release with Ginkgo biloba extract to treat patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon in South Korea; Korean Raynaud study (KOARA study). Clin Rheumatol. 2009;28(5):553-559. View abstract.

Cockle, S. M., Kimber, S., and Hindmarch, I. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (LI 1370) supplementation on activities of daily living in free living older volunteers: a questionnaire survey. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2000;15(4):227-235. View abstract.

D'Andrea, G., Bussone, G., Allais, G., Aguggia, M., D'Onofrio, F., Maggio, M., Moschiano, F., Saracco, M. G., Terzi, M. G., Petretta, V., and Benedetto, C. Efficacy of Ginkgolide B in the prophylaxis of migraine with aura. Neurol.Sci 2009;30 Suppl 1:S121-S124. View abstract.

Dardano, A., Ballardin, M., Caraccio, N., Boni, G., Traino, C., Mariani, G., Ferdeghini, M., Barale, R., and Monzani, F. The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on genotoxic damage in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma receiving thyroid remnant ablation with iodine-131. Thyroid 2012;22(3):318-324. View abstract.

Deng, F. and Zito, S. W. Development and validation of a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for simultaneous identification and quantification of marker compounds including bilobalide, ginkgolides and flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba L. extract and pharmaceutical preparations. J Chromatogr.A 1-31-2003;986(1):121-127. View abstract.

Deng, Y. K., Wei, F., and An, B. Q. [Effect of ginkgo biloba extract on plasma vascular endothelial growth factor during peri-operative period of cardiac surgery]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2009;29(1):40-42. View abstract.

Donfrancesco, R. and Ferrante, L. Ginkgo biloba in dyslexia: a pilot study. Phytomedicine 2007;14(6):367-370. View abstract.

Engelsen, J., Nielsen, J. D., and Hansen, K. F. [Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Ginkgo biloba on warfarin dosage in patients on long-term warfarin treatment. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial]. Ugeskr.Laeger 4-28-2003;165(18):1868-1871. View abstract.

Esposito, M. and Carotenuto, M. Ginkgolide B complex efficacy for brief prophylaxis of migraine in school-aged children: an open-label study. Neurol.Sci 9-25-2010; View abstract.

Fan, L., Tao, G. Y., Wang, G., Chen, Y., Zhang, W., He, Y. J., Li, Q., Lei, H. P., Jiang, F., Hu, D. L., Huang, Y. F., and Zhou, H. H. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract ingestion on the pharmacokinetics of talinolol in healthy Chinese volunteers. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43(5):944-949. View abstract.

Fessenden JM, Wittenborn W, and Clarke L. Ginkgo biloba: a case report of herbal medicine and bleeding postoperatively from a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg 2001;67(1):33-35.

Guillon, J. M., Rochette, L., and Baranes, J. [Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on 2 models of experimental myocardial ischemia]. Presse Med 9-25-1986;15(31):1516-1519. View abstract.

Han, S. S., Nam, E. C., Won, J. Y., Lee, K. U., Chun, W., Choi, H. K., and Levine, R. A. Clonazepam quiets tinnitus: a randomised crossover study with Ginkgo biloba. J Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiatry 2012;83(8):821-827. View abstract.

Hao, Y., Sun, Y., Xu, C., Jiang, X., Sun, H., Wu, Q., Yan, C., and Gu, S. Improvement of contractile function in isolated cardiomyocytes from ischemia-reperfusion rats by ginkgolide B pretreatment. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2009;54(1):3-9. View abstract.

Hauns, B., Haring, B., Kohler, S., Mross, K., Robben-Bathe, P., and Unger, C. Phase II study with 5-fluorouracil and ginkgo biloba extract (GBE 761 ONC) in patients with pancreatic cancer. Arzneimittelforschung 1999;49(12):1030-1034. View abstract.

He, M., Zhang, X. M., and Yuan, H. Q. [Clinical study on treatment of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with ginkgo extract]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2005;25(3):222-224. View abstract.

Herrschaft, H., Nacu, A., Likhachev, S., Sholomov, I., Hoerr, R., and Schlaefke, S. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R) in dementia with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of a daily dose of 240 mg. J Psychiatr.Res 2012;46(6):716-723. View abstract.

Ito, T. Y., Trant, A. S., and Polan, M. L. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for enhancement of female sexual function. J Sex Marital Ther 2001;27(5):541-549. View abstract.

Janssen, I. M., Sturtz, S., Skipka, G., Zentner, A., Velasco, Garrido M., and Busse, R. Ginkgo biloba in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 2010;160(21-22):539-546. View abstract.

Janssens, D., Michiels, C., Delaive, E., Eliaers, F., Drieu, K., and Remacle, J. Protection of hypoxia-induced ATP decrease in endothelial cells by ginkgo biloba extract and bilobalide. Biochem Pharmacol 9-28-1995;50(7):991-999. View abstract.

Jiang, W., Qiu, W., Wang, Y., Cong, Q., Edwards, D., Ye, B., and Xu, C. Ginkgo may prevent genetic-associated ovarian cancer risk: multiple biomarkers and anticancer pathways induced by ginkgolide B in BRCA1-mutant ovarian epithelial cells. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011;20(6):508-517. View abstract.

Kampman, K., Majewska, M. D., Tourian, K., Dackis, C., Cornish, J., Poole, S., and O'Brien, C. A pilot trial of piracetam and ginkgo biloba for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Addict.Behav 2003;28(3):437-448. View abstract.

Kaschel, R. Ginkgo biloba: specificity of neuropsychological improvement--a selective review in search of differential effects. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2009;24(5):345-370. View abstract.

Kaschel, R. Specific memory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in middle-aged healthy volunteers. Phytomedicine 11-15-2011;18(14):1202-1207. View abstract.

Kennedy, D. O., Haskell, C. F., Mauri, P. L., and Scholey, A. B. Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2007;22(4):199-210. View abstract.

Kim, T. E., Kim, B. H., Kim, J., Kim, K. P., Yi, S., Shin, H. S., Lee, Y. O., Lee, K. H., Shin, S. G., Jang, I. J., and Yu, K. S. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of ticlopidine between administration of a combined fixed-dose tablet formulation of ticlopidine 250 mg/ginkgo extract 80 mg, and concomitant administration of ticlopidine 250-mg and ginkgo extract 80-mg tablets: an open-label, two-treatment, single-dose, randomized-sequence crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers. Clin Ther 2009;31(10):2249-2257. View abstract.

Koltai, M., Tosaki, A., Hosford, D., and Braquet, P. Ginkgolide B protects isolated hearts against arrhythmias induced by ischemia but not reperfusion. Eur J Pharmacol 5-19-1989;164(2):293-302. View abstract.

Kose, K. and Dogan, P. Lipoperoxidation induced by hydrogen peroxide in human erythrocyte membranes. 1. Protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761). J Int Med Res 1995;23(1):1-8. View abstract.

Laws, K. R., Sweetnam, H., and Kondel, T. K. Is Ginkgo biloba a cognitive enhancer in healthy individuals? A meta-analysis. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2012;27(6):527-533. View abstract.

Leadbetter, G., Keyes, L. E., Maakestad, K. M., Olson, S., Tissot van Patot, M. C., and Hackett, P. H. Ginkgo biloba does--and does not--prevent acute mountain sickness. Wilderness.Environ.Med 2009;20(1):66-71. View abstract.

Lee, J., Sohn, S. W., and Kee, C. Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract on Visual Field Progression in Normal Tension Glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 5-16-2012; View abstract.

Lei, H. P., Wang, G., Wang, L. S., Ou-yang, D. S., Chen, H., Li, Q., Zhang, W., Tan, Z. R., Fan, L., He, Y. J., and Zhou, H. H. Lack of effect of Ginkgo biloba on voriconazole pharmacokinetics in Chinese volunteers identified as CYP2C19 poor and extensive metabolizers. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43(4):726-731. View abstract.

Lin, Y. Y., Chu, S. J., and Tsai, S. H. Association between priapism and concurrent use of risperidone and Ginkgo biloba. Mayo Clin Proc 2007;82(10):1289-1290. View abstract.

Lovera, J. F., Kim, E., Heriza, E., Fitzpatrick, M., Hunziker, J., Turner, A. P., Adams, J., Stover, T., Sangeorzan, A., Sloan, A., Howieson, D., Wild, K., Haselkorn, J., and Bourdette, D. Ginkgo biloba does not improve cognitive function in MS: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 9-18-2012;79(12):1278-1284. View abstract.

Lovera, J., Bagert, B., Smoot, K., Morris, C. D., Frank, R., Bogardus, K., Wild, K., Oken, B., Whitham, R., and Bourdette, D. Ginkgo biloba for the improvement of cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Mult.Scler. 2007;13(3):376-385. View abstract.

May, B. H., Yang, A. W., Zhang, A. L., Owens, M. D., Bennett, L., Head, R., Cobiac, L., Li, C. G., Hugel, H., Story, D. F., and Xue, C. C. Chinese herbal medicine for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Age Associated Memory Impairment: a review of randomised controlled trials. Biogerontology. 2009;10(2):109-123. View abstract.

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Nicolai, S. P., Gerardu, V. C., Kruidenier, L. M., Prins, M. H., and Teijink, J. A. From the Cochrane library: Ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication. Vasa 2010;39(2):153-158. View abstract.

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