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Avorn J, Monane M, Gurwitz J, Glynn R I, Choodnovskiy I, and Lipsitz L A. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria using cranberry juice. JAMA 1994;272(8):588-590.

Bailey, D. T., Dalton, C., Joseph, Daugherty F., and Tempesta, M. S. Can a concentrated cranberry extract prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women? A pilot study. Phytomedicine 2007;14(4):237-241. View nolvadex effective dose of melatonin abstract.

Basu, A., Betts, N. M., Ortiz, J., Simmons, B., Wu, M., and Lyons, T. J. Low-energy cranberry juice decreases lipid oxidation and increases plasma antioxidant capacity in women with metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res 2011;31(3):190-196. View abstract.

Beerepoot, M. A., Stobberingh, E. E., and Geerlings, S. E. [A study of non-antibiotic versus antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary-tract infections in women (the NAPRUTI study)]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 3-11-2006;150(10):574-575. View abstract.

Bianco, L., Perrelli, E., Towle, V., Van Ness, P. H., and Juthani-Mehta, M. Pilot randomized controlled dosing study of cranberry capsules for reduction of bacteriuria plus pyuria in female nursing home residents. J Am.Geriatr Soc 2012;60(6):1180-1181. View abstract.

Blatherwick NR and Long ML. Studies of urinary acidity II: The increased acidity produced by eating prunes and cranberries. J Biol Chem 1923;57:815.

Bodel P, Cotran R, and Kass E. Cranberry juice and the antibacterial action of hippuric acid. J.Lab & Clin.Med. 1959;54(6):881-888.

Bodet, C., Chandad, F., and Grenier, D. Anti-inflammatory activity of a high-molecular-weight cranberry fraction on macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides from periodontopathogens. J Dent Res 2006;85(3):235-239. View abstract.

Bodet, C., Grenier, D., Chandad, F., Ofek, I., Steinberg, D., and Weiss, E. I. Potential oral health benefits of cranberry. Crit Rev.Food Sci Nutr 2008;48(7):672-680. View abstract.

Cadkova, I., Doudova, L., Novackova, M., Huvar, I., and Chmel, R. [Effect of cranberry extract capsules taken during the perioperative period upon the post-surgical urinary infection in gynecology]. Ceska.Gynekol. 2009;74(6):454-458. View abstract.

Campbell, G., Pickles, T., and D'yachkova, Y. A randomised trial of cranberry versus apple juice in the management of urinary symptoms during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Clin Oncol.(R.Coll Radiol.) 2003;15(6):322-328. View abstract.

Conquy, S. [Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections?]. Prog Urol 2006;16(4 Suppl FMC):3-4. View abstract.

Cowan, C. C., Hutchison, C., Cole, T., Barry, S. J., Paul, J., Reed, N. S., and Russell, J. M. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of cranberry juice on decreasing the incidence of urinary symptoms and urinary tract infections in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer of the bladder or cervix. Clin.Oncol.(R.Coll.Radiol.) 2012;24(2):e31-e38. View abstract.

Cravotto, G., Boffa, L., Genzini, L., and Garella, D. Phytotherapeutics: an evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants. J Clin Pharm Ther 2010;35(1):11-48. View abstract.

Crews, W. D., Jr., Harrison, D. W., Griffin, M. L., Addison, K., Yount, A. M., Giovenco, M. A., and Hazell, J. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the neuropsychologic efficacy of cranberry juice in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: pilot study findings. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11(2):305-309. View abstract.

Di Martino, P., Agniel, R., David, K., Templer, C., Gaillard, J. L., Denys, P., and Botto, H. Reduction of Escherichia coli adherence to uroepithelial bladder cells after consumption of cranberry juice: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial. World J Urol 2006;24(1):21-27. View abstract.

Dignam R, Ahmed M, Denman S, and et al. The effect of cranberry juice on UTI rates in a long-term care facility. J Amer Geriat Soc 1997;45(9):S53.

Dohadwala, M. M., Holbrook, M., Hamburg, N. M., Shenouda, S. M., Chung, W. B., Titas, M., Kluge, M. A., Wang, N., Palmisano, J., Milbury, P. E., Blumberg, J. B., and Vita, J. A. Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2011;93(5):934-940. View abstract.

Duarte, S., Gregoire, S., Singh, A. P., Vorsa, N., Schaich, K., Bowen, W. H., and Koo, H. Inhibitory effects of cranberry polyphenols on formation and acidogenicity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. FEMS Microbiol.Lett 2006;257(1):50-56. View abstract.

DuGan C and Cardaciotto P. Reduction of ammoniacal urinary odors by the sustained feeding of cranberry juice. J Psych Nurs 1966;4:467-470.

Duthie, S. J., Jenkinson, A. M., Crozier, A., Mullen, W., Pirie, L., Kyle, J., Yap, L. S., Christen, P., and Duthie, G. G. The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers. Eur.J Nutr 2006;45(2):113-122. View abstract.

Efros, M., Bromberg, W., Cossu, L., Nakeleski, E., and Katz, A. E. Novel concentrated cranberry liquid blend, UTI-STAT with Proantinox, might help prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Urology 2010;76(4):841-845. View abstract.

Epp, A., Larochelle, A., Lovatsis, D., Walter, J. E., Easton, W., Farrell, S. A., Girouard, L., Gupta, C., Harvey, M. A., Robert, M., Ross, S., Schachter, J., Schulz, J. A., Wilkie, D., Ehman, W., Domb, S., Gagnon, A., Hughes, O., Konkin, J., Lynch, J., Marshall, C., and Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Recurrent urinary tract infection. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2010;32(11):1082-1101. View abstract.

Fanos, V., Atzei, A., Zaffanello, M., Piras, A., and Cataldi, L. Cranberry and prevention of urinary tract infections in children. J Chemother. 2006;18 Spec no 3:21-24. View abstract.

Ferguson, P. J., Kurowska, E., Freeman, D. J., Chambers, A. F., and Koropatnick, D. J. A flavonoid fraction from cranberry extract inhibits proliferation of human tumor cell lines. J Nutr. 2004;134(6):1529-1535. View abstract.

Ferrara, P., Romaniello, L., Vitelli, O., Gatto, A., Serva, M., and Cataldi, L. Cranberry juice for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections: a randomized controlled trial in children. Scand.J Urol.Nephrol. 2009;43(5):369-372. View abstract.

Foda M, Middlebrook PF, Gatfield CT, and et al. Efficacy of cranberry in prevention of urinary tract infection in a susceptible pediatric population. Canadian J Urology 1995;2(1):98-102.

Foxman, B., Geiger, A. M., Palin, K., Gillespie, B., and Koopman, J. S. First-time urinary tract infection and sexual behavior. Epidemiology 1995;6(2):162-168. View abstract.

Garcia-Calatayud, S., Larreina Cordoba, J. J., and Lozano De La Torre MJ. [Severe cranberry juice poisoning]. An.Esp.Pediatr. 2002;56(1):72-73. View abstract.

Gettman, M. T., Ogan, K., Brinkley, L. J., Adams-Huet, B., Pak, C. Y., and Pearle, M. S. Effect of cranberry juice consumption on urinary stone risk factors. J Urol 2005;174(2):590-594. View abstract.

Gibson L, Pike L, and Kilbourne J. Effectiveness of cranberry juice in preventing urinary tract infections in long-term care facility patients. J Naturopath Med 1991;2(1):45-47.

Goodfriend, R. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria using cranberry juice. JAMA 8-24-1994;272(8):588-590. View abstract.

Gotteland, M., Andrews, M., Toledo, M., Munoz, L., Caceres, P., Anziani, A., Wittig, E., Speisky, H., and Salazar, G. Modulation of Helicobacter pylori colonization with cranberry juice and Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 in children. Nutrition 2008;24(5):421-426. View abstract.

Greenlee, H., White, E., Patterson, R. E., and Kristal, A. R. Supplement use among cancer survivors in the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) study cohort. J Altern.Complement Med 2004;10(4):660-666. View abstract.

Hess, M. J., Hess, P. E., Sullivan, M. R., Nee, M., and Yalla, S. V. Evaluation of cranberry tablets for the prevention of urinary tract infections in spinal cord injured patients with neurogenic bladder. Spinal Cord. 2008;46(9):622-626. View abstract.

Hopkins, W. J., Heisey, D. M., Jonler, M., and Uehling, D. T. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria using cranberry juice. JAMA 8-24-1994;272(8):588-589. View abstract.

Jepson, R. G., Mihaljevic, L., and Craig, J. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2000;(2):CD001321. View abstract.

Johnston, S. L., Farrell, S. A., Bouchard, C., Farrell, S. A., Beckerson, L. A., Comeau, M., Johnston, S. L., Lefebvre, G., and Papaioannou, A. The detection and management of vaginal atrophy. J Obstet.Gynaecol.Can. 2004;26(5):503-515. View abstract.

Kahn, H. D., Panariello, V. A., Saeli, J., Sampson, J. R., and Schwartz, E. Effect of cranberry juice on urine. J Am Diet.Assoc 1967;51(3):251-254. View abstract.

Kemper, K. J. Cranberry therapy for children's urinary tract infections. Arch Pediatr Adolesc.Med 2006;160(4):451-452. View abstract.

Konowalchuk, J. and Speirs, J. I. Antiviral effect of commercial juices and beverages. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 1978;35(6):1219-1220. View abstract.

Kontiokari, T., Salo, J., Eerola, E., and Uhari, M. Cranberry juice and bacterial colonization in children--a placebo-controlled randomized trial. Clin Nutr 2005;24(6):1065-1072. View abstract.

Kushnerova, N. F., Merzliakov, V. I., Fomenko, S. E., Sprygin, V. G., Momot, T. V., and Bogdanovich, L. N. [Prevention of stress-related disorders in medical personnel]. Med Tr.Prom Ekol. 2012;(6):44-48. View abstract.

Labrecque, J., Bodet, C., Chandad, F., and Grenier, D. Effects of a high-molecular-weight cranberry fraction on growth, biofilm formation and adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 2006;58(2):439-443. View abstract.

Leaver, R. B. Cranberry juice. Prof.Nurse 1996;11(8):525-526. View abstract.

Lee, B. B., Haran, M. J., Hunt, L. M., Simpson, J. M., Marial, O., Rutkowski, S. B., Middleton, J. W., Kotsiou, G., Tudehope, M., and Cameron, I. D. Spinal-injured neuropathic bladder antisepsis (SINBA) trial. Spinal.Cord. 2007;45(8):542-550. View abstract.

Light, I., Gursel, E., and Zinnser, H. H. Urinary ionized calcium in urolithiasis. Effect of cranberry juice. Urology 1973;1(1):67-70. View abstract.

Linsenmeyer, T. A., Harrison, B., Oakley, A., Kirshblum, S., Stock, J. A., and Millis, S. R. Evaluation of cranberry supplement for reduction of urinary tract infections in individuals with neurogenic bladders secondary to spinal cord injury. A prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Spinal Cord.Med 2004;27(1):29-34. View abstract.

McGuinness SD, Krone R, and Metz LM. A double blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial of cranberry supplements in multiple sclerosis. J NeurosciNurs 2002;34(1):4-7.

McHarg, T., Rodgers, A., and Charlton, K. Influence of cranberry juice on the urinary risk factors for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation. BJU.Int 2003;92(7):765-768. View abstract.

McMurdo, M. E., Bissett, L. Y., Price, R. J., Phillips, G., and Crombie, I. K. Does ingestion of cranberry juice reduce symptomatic urinary tract infections in older people in hospital? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Age Ageing 2005;34(3):256-261. View abstract.

Milbury, P. E., Vita, J. A., and Blumberg, J. B. Anthocyanins are bioavailable in humans following an acute dose of cranberry juice. J Nutr 2010;140(6):1099-1104. View abstract.

Moen DV. Observations on the effectiveness of cranberry juice in urinary infections. Wisconsin Med J 1962;61:282-283.

Monroy-Torres, R. and Macias, A. E. [Does cranberry juice have bacteriostatic activity?]. Rev Invest Clin 2005;57(3):442-446. View abstract.

Nahata, M. C., Cummins, B. A., McLeod, D. C., and Butler, R. Predictability of methenamine efficacy based on type of urinary pathogen and pH. J Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1981;29(5):236-239. View abstract.

Nahata, M. C., Cummins, B. A., McLeod, D. C., Schondelmeyer, S. W., and Butler, R. Effect of urinary acidifiers on formaldehyde concentration and efficacy with methenamine therapy. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol. 1982;22(3):281-284. View abstract.

Neto, C. C. Cranberry and its phytochemicals: a review of in vitro anticancer studies. J Nutr 2007;137(1 Suppl):186S-193S. View abstract.

Neto, C. C., Amoroso, J. W., and Liberty, A. M. Anticancer activities of cranberry phytochemicals: an update. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2008;52 Suppl 1:S18-S27. View abstract.

Ohnishi, R., Ito, H., Kasajima, N., Kaneda, M., Kariyama, R., Kumon, H., Hatano, T., and Yoshida, T. Urinary excretion of anthocyanins in humans after cranberry juice ingestion. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 2006;70(7):1681-1687. View abstract.

Opperman, E. A. Cranberry is not effective for the prevention or treatment of urinary tract infections in individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal.Cord. 2010;48(6):451-456. View abstract.

Papas, P. N., Brusch, C. A., and Ceresia, G. C. Cranberry juice in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Southwest.Med 1966;47(1):17-20. View abstract.

Patel, D. A., Gillespie, B., Sobel, J. D., Leaman, D., Nyirjesy, P., Weitz, M. V., and Foxman, B. Risk factors for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in women receiving maintenance antifungal therapy: results of a prospective cohort study. Am J Obstet.Gynecol. 2004;190(3):644-653. View abstract.

Regal, R. E., Pham, C. Q., and Bostwick, T. R. Urinary tract infections in extended care facilities: preventive management strategies. Consult Pharm 2006;21(5):400-409. View abstract.

Reid, G., Hsiehl, J., Potter, P., Mighton, J., Lam, D., Warren, D., and Stephenson, J. Cranberry juice consumption may reduce biofilms on uroepithelial cells: pilot study in spinal cord injured patients. Spinal Cord. 2001;39(1):26-30. View abstract.

Ruel, G., Pomerleau, S., Couture, P., Lemieux, S., Lamarche, B., and Couillard, C. Favourable impact of low-calorie cranberry juice consumption on plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in men. Br J Nutr 2006;96(2):357-364. View abstract.

Salo, J., Uhari, M., Helminen, M., Korppi, M., Nieminen, T., Pokka, T., and Kontiokari, T. Cranberry juice for the prevention of recurrences of urinary tract infections in children: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin.Infect.Dis. 2-1-2012;54(3):340-346. View abstract.

Santillo, V. M. and Lowe, F. C. Cranberry juice for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections. Drugs Today (Barc.) 2007;43(1):47-54. View abstract.

Shmuely, H., Yahav, J., Samra, Z., Chodick, G., Koren, R., Niv, Y., and Ofek, I. Effect of cranberry juice on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients treated with antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2007;51(6):746-751. View abstract.

Stapleton, A. E., Dziura, J., Hooton, T. M., Cox, M. E., Yarova-Yarovaya, Y., Chen, S., and Gupta, K. Recurrent urinary tract infection and urinary Escherichia coli in women ingesting cranberry juice daily: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo.Clin.Proc. 2012;87(2):143-150. View abstract.

Stothers, L. A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women. Can j urol 2002;9(3):1558-1562. View abstract.

Swartz, J. H. and Medrek, T. F. Antifungal properties of cranberry juice. Appl.Microbiol. 1968;16(10):1524-1527. View abstract.

Tsukada, K., Tokunaga, K., Iwama, T., Mishima, Y., Tazawa, K., and Fujimaki, M. Cranberry juice and its impact on peri-stomal skin conditions for urostomy patients. Ostomy.Wound.Manage. 1994;40(9):60-68. View abstract.

Uesawa, Y. and Mohri, K. Effects of cranberry juice on nifedipine pharmacokinetics in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2006;58(8):1067-1072. View abstract.

Valentova, K., Stejskal, D., Bednar, P., Vostalova, J., Cihalik, C., Vecerova, R., Koukalova, D., Kolar, M., Reichenbach, R., Sknouril, L., Ulrichova, J., and Simanek, V. Biosafety, antioxidant status, and metabolites in urine after consumption of dried cranberry juice in healthy women: a pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Agric Food Chem 4-18-2007;55(8):3217-3224. View abstract.

Vinson, J. A., Bose, P., Proch, J., Al Kharrat, H., and Samman, N. Cranberries and cranberry products: powerful in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo sources of antioxidants. J Agric.Food Chem. 7-23-2008;56(14):5884-5891. View abstract.

Walsh, B. A. Urostomy and urinary pH. J ET Nurs. 1992;19(4):110-113. View abstract.

Wang, C. H., Fang, C. C., Chen, N. C., Liu, S. S., Yu, P. H., Wu, T. Y., Chen, W. T., Lee, C. C., and Chen, S. C. Cranberry-containing products for prevention of urinary tract infections in susceptible populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern.Med 7-9-2012;172(13):988-996. View abstract.

Weiss, E. I., Houri-Haddad, Y., Greenbaum, E., Hochman, N., Ofek, I., and Zakay-Rones, Z. Cranberry juice constituents affect influenza virus adhesion and infectivity. Antiviral Res. 2005;66(1):9-12. View abstract.

Wilson, T., Porcari, J. P., and Harbin, D. Cranberry extract inhibits low density lipoprotein oxidation. Life Sci 1998;62(24):L381-L386. View abstract.

Yan, X., Murphy, B. T., Hammond, G. B., Vinson, J. A., and Neto, C. C. Antioxidant activities and antitumor screening of extracts from cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon). J Agric.Food Chem. 10-9-2002;50(21):5844-5849. View abstract.

Zhang, L., Ma, J., Pan, K., Go, V. L., Chen, J., and You, W. C. Efficacy of cranberry juice on Helicobacter pylori infection: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Helicobacter. 2005;10(2):139-145. View abstract.

Mergenhagen KA, Sherman O. Elevated International Normalized Ratio after concurrent ingestion of cranberry sauce and warfarin. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2008;65:2113-6. View abstract.

Afshar K, Stothers L, Scott H, MacNeily AE. Cranberry juice for the prevention of pediatric urinary tract infection: a randomized controlled trial. J Urol 2012;188(4 Suppl):1584-7. View abstract.

Ahuja S, Kaack B, Roberts J. Loss of fimbrial adhesion with the addition of Vaccinum macrocarpon to the growth medium of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli. J Urol 1998;159:559-62. View abstract.

Anon. Possible interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice. Current Problems in Pharmacovigilance 2003;29:8.

Ansell J, McDonough M, Zhao Y, et al. The absence of an interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice: a randomized, double-blind trial. J Clin Pharmacol 2009;49:824-30. View abstract.

Avorn J, Manone M, Gurwitz JH, et al. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria after ingestion of cranberry juice. JAMA 1994;271:751-4. View abstract.

Avorn J. The effect of cranberry juice on the presence of bacteria and white blood cells in the urine of elderly women. What is the role of bacterial adhesion? Adv Exp Med Biol 1996;408:185-6. View abstract.

Barbosa-Cesnik C, Brown MB, Buxton M, et al. Cranberry juice fails to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection: results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis 2011;52:23-30. View abstract.

Beerepoot MA, ter Riet G, Nys S, et al. cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized double-blind noninferiority trial in premenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 2011;171:1270-8. View abstract.

Blacklock CJ, Lawrence JR, Wiles D, et al. Salicylic acid in the serum of subjects not taking aspirin. Comparison of salicylic acid concentrations in the serum of vegetarians, non-vegetarians, and patients taking low dose aspirin. J Clin Pathol 2001;54:553-5. View abstract.

Bomser J, Madhavi DL, Singletary K, Smith MA. In vitro anticancer activity of fruit extracts from Vaccinium species. Planta Med 1996;62:212-6.. View abstract.

Burger O, Ofek I, Tabak M, et al. A high molecular mass constituent of cranberry juice inhibits helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucus. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2000;29:295-301. View abstract.

Caljouw MA, van den Hout WB, Putter H, Achterberg WP, Cools HJ, Gussekloo J. Effectiveness of cranberry capsules to prevent urinary tract infections in vulnerable older persons: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in long-term care facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc 2014;62(1):103-10. View abstract.

Chambers BK, Camire ME. Can cranberry supplementation benefit adults with type 2 diabetes? Diabetes Care 2003;26:2695-6. View abstract.

Doad GJ, Kabange W. Cranberry juice, atorvastatin and back pain. J Med Assoc Ga 2014;103(1):14. View abstract.

DuGan CR, Cardaciotto PS. Reduction of ammoniacal urinary odors by the sustained feeding of cranberry juice. J Psychiatr Nurs 1966;467-70.

Duthie GG, Kyle JA, Jenkinson AM, et al. Increased salicylate concentrations in urine of human volunteers after consumption of cranberry juice. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:2897-2900. View abstract.

Fleet JC. New support for a folk remedy: Cranberry juice reduces bacteriuria and pyuria in elderly women. Nutr Rev 1994;52:168-70. View abstract.

Foda MM, Middlebrook PF, Gatfield CT, et al. Efficacy of cranberry in prevention of urinary tract infection in a susceptible pediatric population. Can J Urol 1995;2:98-102. View abstract.

Foo LY, Lu Y, Howell AB, Vorsa N. The structure of cranberry proanthocyanidins which inhibit adherence of uropathogenic P-fimbriated Escherichia coli in vitro. Phytochemistry 2000;54:173-81. View abstract.

Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Perloff ES, et al. Interaction of flurbiprofen with cranberry juice, grape juice, tea, and fluconazole: in vitro and clinical studies. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006;79:125-33. View abstract.

Habash MB, van der Mei HC, Busscher HJ, Reid G. The effect of water, ascorbic acid, and cranberry derived supplementation on human urine and uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber. Can J Microbiol 1999;45:691-4. View abstract.

Harkins K. What's the use of cranberry juice? Age Ageing 2000;29:9-12. View abstract.

Haverkorn MJ, Mandigers J. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria using cranberry juice. JAMA 1994;272:590. View abstract.

Hodek P, Trefil P, Stiborova M. Flavonoids-potent and versatile biologically active compounds interacting with cytochromes P450. Chem Biol Interact 2002;139:1-21.. View abstract.

Howell AB, Vorsa N, Foo LY, et al. Inhibition of the Adherence of P-Fimbriated Escherichia coli to Uroepithelial-Cell Surfaces by Proanthocyanidin Extracts from Cranberries (letter). N Engl J Med 1998;339:1085-6. View abstract.

Jackson B, Hicks LE. Effect of cranberry juice on urinary pH in older adults. Home Healthc Nurse 1997;15:199-202. View abstract.

Jepson RG, Craig JC. A systematic review of the evidence for cranberries and blueberries in UTI prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res 2007;51:738-45. View abstract.

Jepson RG, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(1):CD001321. View abstract.

Jepson RG, Mihaljevic L, Craig J. Cranberries for treating urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;2:CD001322. View abstract.

Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012 17;10:CD001321. View abstract.

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Kinney AB, Blount M. Effect of cranberry juice on urinary pH. Nurs Res 1979;28:287-90. View abstract.

Kontiokari T, Sundqvist K, Nuutinen M, et al. Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women. BMJ 2001;322:1571. View abstract.

Lee YL, Owens J, Thrupp L, Cesario TC. Does cranberry juice have antibacterial activity? JAMA 2000;283:1691. View abstract.

Li Z, Seeram NP, Carpenter CL, et al. Cranberry does not affect prothrombin time in male subjects on warfarin. J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106:2057-61. View abstract.

Lilja JJ, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ. Effects of daily ingestion of cranberry juice on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, tizanidine, and midazolam - probes of CYP2C9, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4. Clin Pharmacol The 2007:81:833-9. View abstract.

Lowe FC, Fagelman E. Cranberry juice and urinary tract infections: what is the evidence? Urology 2001;57:407-13. View abstract.

Mazokopakis EE, Karefilakis CM, Starakis IK. Efficacy of cranberry capsules in prevention of urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15:1155. View abstract.

McMurdo MET, Argo I, Phillips G, et al. Cranberry or trimethoprim for the prevention of recurrently urinary tract infections? A randomized controlled trial in older women. J Antimicrob Chemother 2009;63:389-95. View abstract.

Mohammed Abdul MI, Jiang X, Williams KM, et al. Pharmacodynamic interaction of warfarin with cranberry but not with garlic in healthy subjects. Br J Pharmacol 2008;154:1691-700. View abstract.

Nantz MP, Rowe CA, Muller C, Creasy R, Colee J, Khoo C, Percival SS. Consumption of cranberry polyphenols enhances human γδ-T cell proliferation and reduces the number of symptoms associated with colds and influenza: a randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study. Nutr J 2013;12:161. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-161. View abstract.

Ofek I, Goldhar J, Zafriri D, et al. Anti-Escherichia coli adhesin activity of cranberry and blueberry juices. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1599. View abstract.

Pedersen CB, Kyle J, Jenkinson AM, et al. Effects of blueberry and cranberry juice consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy female volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:405-8. View abstract.

Royer, D. J., George, J. N., and Terrell, D. R. Thrombocytopenia as an adverse effect of complementary and alternative medicines, herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, foods, and beverages. Eur J Haematol 2010;84(5):421-429. View abstract.

Saltzman JR, Kemp JA, Golner BB, et al. Effect of hypochlorhydria due to omeprazole treatment or atrophic gastritis on protein-bound vitamin B12 absorption. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;13:584-91. View abstract.

Scheier L. Salicylic acid: one more reason to eat your fruits and vegetables. J Am Diet Assoc 2001;101:1406-8. View abstract.

Schlager TA, Anderson S, Trudell J, Hendley JO. Effect of cranberry juice on bacteriuria in children with neurogenic bladder receiving intermittent catheterization. J Pediatr 1999;135:698-702. View abstract.

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