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Sonnenbichler J, Scalera F, Sonnenbichler I, Weyhenmeyer R. Stimulatory effects of silibinin and silicristin from the milk thistle Silybum marianum on kidney cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999;290:1375-83. View abstract.

Sridar C, Goosen TC, Kent UM, et al. Silybin inactivates cytochromes P450 3A4 and 2C9 and inhibits major hepatic glucuronosyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos 2004;32:587-94. View abstract.

Suksomboon N, Poolsup N, Boonkaew S, Suthisisang CC. Meta-analysis of the effect of herbal supplement on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;137(3):1328-1333. View abstract.

Szilard S, Szentgyorgyi D, Demeter I. Protective effect of Legalon in workers exposed to organic solvents. Acta Med Hung 1988;45:249-56. View abstract.

Tanamly MD, Tadros F, Labeeb S, et al. Randomised double-blinded trial evaluating silymarin for chronic hepatitis C in an Egyptian village: study description and 12-month results. Dig Liver Dis 2004;36:752-9. View abstract.

Trinchet JC, Coste T, Levy VG. [Treatment of alcoholic hepatitis with silymarin. A double-blind comparative study in 116 patients]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1989;13:120-4. View abstract.

van Erp NP, Baker SD, Zhao M, et al. Effect of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan. Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:7800-6. View abstract.

Velussi M, Cernigoi AM, De Monte A, et al. Long-term (12 months) treatment with an anti-oxidant drug (silymarin) is effective on hyperinsulinemia, exogenous insulin need and malondialdehyde levels in cirrhotic diabetic patients. J Hepatol 1997;26:871-9. View abstract.

Venkataramanan R, Ramachandran V, Komoroski BJ, et al. Milk thistle, a herbal supplement, decreases the activity of CYP3A4 and uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase in human hepatocyte cultures. Drug Metab Dispos 2000;28:1270-3. View abstract.

Vostalova J, Vidlar A, Ulrichova J, et al. Use of selenium-silymarin mix reduces lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate specific antigen in men. Phytomedicine 2013;21:75-81. View abstract.

Yang Z, Zhuang L, Lu Y, Xu Q, Chen X. Effects and tolerance of silymarin (milk thistle) in chronic hepatitis C virus infection patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Biomed Res Int. 2014;941085. doi: 10.1155/2014/941085. Epub 2014 Aug 27. View abstract.

Zhu W, Zhang JS, Young CY. Silymarin inhibits function of the androgen receptor by reducing nuclear localization of the receptor in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Carcinogenesis 2001;22:1399-403. View abstract.

Albrecht M, Frerick H, Kuhn U, and et al. Die Therapie toxischer Leberschaden mit Legalon. Z Klin Med 1992;47(2):87-92.

Allain, H., Schuck, S., Lebreton, S., Strenge-Hesse, A., Braun, W., Gandon, J. M., and Brissot, P. Aminotransferase levels and silymarin in de novo tacrine-treated patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement.Geriatr.Cogn Disord. 1999;10(3):181-185. View abstract.

Angulo, P., Patel, T., Jorgensen, R. A., Therneau, T. M., and Lindor, K. D. Silymarin in the treatment of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis with a suboptimal response to ursodeoxycholic acid. Hepatology 2000;32(5):897-900. View abstract.

Anon. Adverse reaction: milk thistle-associated toxicity. Nurse Drug Alert 1999;23(7):51.

Asghar, Z. and Masood, Z. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of silymarin and its potential to inhibit peroxyl radicals in vitro. Pak.J Pharm Sci 2008;21(3):249-254. View abstract.

Barzaghi, N., Crema, F., Gatti, G., Pifferi, G., and Perucca, E. Pharmacokinetic studies on IdB 1016, a silybin- phosphatidylcholine complex, in healthy human subjects. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1990;15(4):333-338. View abstract.

Basaga, H., Poli, G., Tekkaya, C., and Aras, I. Free radical scavenging and antioxidative properties of 'silibin' complexes on microsomal lipid peroxidation. Cell Biochem Funct. 1997;15(1):27-33. View abstract.

Batakov, E. A. [Effect of Silybum marianum oil and legalon on lipid peroxidation and liver antioxidant systems in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride]. Eksp.Klin Farmakol. 2001;64(4):53-55. View abstract.

Bean, P. The use of alternative medicine in the treatment of hepatitis C. Am.Clin.Lab 2002;21(4):19-21. View abstract.

Becker-Schiebe, M., Mengs, U., Schaefer, M., Bulitta, M., and Hoffmann, W. Topical use of a silymarin-based preparation to prevent radiodermatitis : results of a prospective study in breast cancer patients. Strahlenther.Onkol. 2011;187(8):485-491. View abstract.

Benda, L., Dittrich, H., Ferenzi, P., Frank, H., and Wewalka, F. [The influence of therapy with silymarin on the survival rate of patients with liver cirrhosis (author's transl)]. Wien.Klin.Wochenschr. 10-10-1980;92(19):678-683. View abstract.

Bhatia, N. and Agarwal, R. Detrimental effect of cancer preventive phytochemicals silymarin, genistein and epigallocatechin 3-gallate on epigenetic events in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells. Prostate 2-1-2001;46(2):98-107. View abstract.

Boari, C., Montanari, F. M., Galletti, G. P., Rizzoli, D., Baldi, E., Caudarella, R., and Gennari, P. [Toxic occupational liver diseases. Therapeutic effects of silymarin]. Minerva Med 10-20-1981;72(40):2679-2688. View abstract.

Bode, J. C., Schmidt, U., and Durr, H. K. [Silymarin for the treatment of acute viral hepatitis? Report of a controlled trial (author's transl)]. Med Klin. 3-25-1977;72(12):513-518. View abstract.

Bokemeyer, C., Fels, L. M., Dunn, T., Voigt, W., Gaedeke, J., Schmoll, H. J., Stolte, H., and Lentzen, H. Silibinin protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without compromising cisplatin or ifosfamide anti-tumour activity. Br J Cancer 1996;74(12):2036-2041. View abstract.

Brinda, B. J., Zhu, H. J., and Markowitz, J. S. A sensitive LC-MS/MS assay for the simultaneous analysis of the major active components of silymarin in human plasma. J.Chromatogr.B Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life Sci. 8-1-2012;902:1-9. View abstract.

Carducci, R., Armellino, M. F., Volpe, C., Basile, G., Caso, N., Apicella, A., and Basile, V. [Silibinin and acute poisoning with Amanita phalloides]. Minerva Anestesiol. 1996;62(5):187-193. View abstract.

Carini, R., Comoglio, A., Albano, E., and Poli, G. Lipid peroxidation and irreversible damage in the rat hepatocyte model. Protection by the silybin-phospholipid complex IdB 1016. Biochem Pharmacol 5-28-1992;43(10):2111-2115. View abstract.

Cavalieri S. A controlled clinical trial of Legalon in 40 patients. Gazz Med Ital 1974;133:628-635.

Comoglio, A., Tomasi, A., Malandrino, S., Poli, G., and Albano, E. Scavenging effect of silipide, a new silybin-phospholipid complex, on ethanol-derived free radicals. Biochem.Pharmacol 10-12-1995;50(8):1313-1316. View abstract.

de Font-Reaulx, Rojas E. and Dorazco-Barragan, G. [Clinical stabilisation in neurodegenerative diseases: clinical study in phase II]. Rev.Neurol. 5-1-2010;50(9):520-528. View abstract.

De Martiis, M., Fontana, M., Assogna, G., D'Ottavi, R., and D'Ottavi, O. [Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) derivatives in the therapy of chronic hepatopathies]. Clin Ter. 8-15-1980;94(3):283-315. View abstract.

Dehmlow, C., Murawski, N., and de Groot, H. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species and inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism by silibinin in human cells. Life Sci 1996;58(18):1591-1600. View abstract.

Desplaces, A., Choppin, J., Vogel, G., and Trost, W. The effects of silymarin on experimental phalloidine poisoning. Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(1):89-96. View abstract.

Detaille, D., Sanchez, C., Sanz, N., Lopez-Novoa, J. M., Leverve, X., and El Mir, M. Y. Interrelation between the inhibition of glycolytic flux by silibinin and the lowering of mitochondrial ROS production in perifused rat hepatocytes. Life Sci 5-23-2008;82(21-22):1070-1076. View abstract.

El-Kamary, S. S., Shardell, M. D., Abdel-Hamid, M., Ismail, S., El-Ateek, M., Metwally, M., Mikhail, N., Hashem, M., Mousa, A., Aboul-Fotouh, A., El-Kassas, M., Esmat, G., and Strickland, G. T. A randomized controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of silymarin on symptoms, signs and biomarkers of acute hepatitis. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(5):391-400. View abstract.

Eurich, D., Bahra, M., Berg, T., Boas-Knoop, S., Biermer, M., Neuhaus, R., Neuhaus, P., and Neumann, U. Treatment of hepatitis C-virus-reinfection after liver transplant with silibinin in nonresponders to pegylated interferon-based therapy. Exp.Clin.Transplant. 2011;9(1):1-6. View abstract.

Fallah Huseini, H., Larijani, B., Fakhrzadeh, H., Rajabi Pour, B., Akhondzadeh, S., Toliat, T., and Heshmat, R. The clinical trial of Silybum Marianum seed extract (Silymarin) on type II diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia. Iran J.Diabetes Lipid Disord. 2004;3(2):201-206.

Fallahzadeh, M. K., Dormanesh, B., Sagheb, M. M., Roozbeh, J., Vessal, G., Pakfetrat, M., Daneshbod, Y., Kamali-Sarvestani, E., and Lankarani, K. B. Effect of addition of silymarin to renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on proteinuria in type 2 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am.J.Kidney Dis. 2012;60(6):896-903. View abstract.

Feher, J., Lang, I., Nekam, K., Muzes, G., and Deak, G. Effect of free radical scavengers on superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Acta Med Hung. 1988;45(3-4):265-276. View abstract.

Fintelmann V. Zur Therapie der Fettleber mit Silymarin. Therapiewoche 1970;20:1055-2064.

Flaig, T. W., Glode, M., Gustafson, D., van, Bokhoven A., Tao, Y., Wilson, S., Su, L. J., Li, Y., Harrison, G., Agarwal, R., Crawford, E. D., Lucia, M. S., and Pollak, M. A study of high-dose oral silybin-phytosome followed by prostatectomy in patients with localized prostate cancer. Prostate 6-1-2010;70(8):848-855. View abstract.

Flory, P. J., Krug, G., Lorenz, D., and Mennicke, W. H. [Studies on elimination of silymarin in cholecystectomized patients. I. Biliary and renal elimination after a single oral dose]. Planta Med 1980;38(3):227-237. View abstract.

Frerick F, Kuhn U, and Strenge-Hesse A. Silymarin--ein Phytopharmakon zur Behandlung toxischen Leberschaden: Anwendungsbeobachtung bei 2169 Patienten. Kassenarzt 1990;33:36-41.


Source: http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-138-MILK%20THISTLE.aspx?activeIngredientId=138&activeIngredientName=MILK%20THISTLE


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